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The biggest English speaking country is the USA.
It occupies almost half of the continent of Northern America and borders on Canada in the north and Mexico in the south.
Having the total area of over nine million sq km it is one of the largest countries in the world.
The population is about 250 million people, most of whom live in towns and cities.
The administrative and political center of the country is its capital Washington D.C., named after the first US President George Washington.
The state seal of the USA
Was accepted on June,20
1782.The basic element
Of seal is an eagle
Detroit.Complex Of «Recesses»
Here are many federal institutions are situated such as Capitol, the main building of US Congress, and the White House, which is the official residence of the US President.
At the same time, the main economic and financial of the USA is New York, lovingly called “Big Apple”.
Second largest city in the USA is Los Angeles, an industrial and educational centre.
The Wall Street in New York is the symbol of financial power of the USA.
The biggest and most important stock exchange is situated on that street as well as head offices of hundreds of companies of world level.
Other important US cities are: San Francisco, Chicago, and Boston.
The USA consists of fifty states.
Large canyon.River of Colorado
A backbone of Black-Khils is in rocky mountains
Statues of great presidents to crave are in a rock
Each state has its own constitution, a parliament and a government headed by a governor.
The most powerful political parties of the USA are the Democratic and the Republican parties, which alternatively win the general elections for the president’s office.
It is interesting that neither the constitution nor any other federal law of the USA contain anything about English as the official language of the country!
Forest roads are in the state of Idaho
Icy lake.State Washington
About half the United States’ territory is covered by plateaus and mountains.
The eastern part of the country is occupied by the Appalachian Mountains, which in the north come close to the Atlantic coast and in the south are separated from it by the Atlantic Lowland. On the territory of the USA proper the mountain ranges stretch in the north-south direction. The first from the east are the Rocky Mountains, reaching up to nearly 4400m. The Pacific coast is formed by the deeply cut Coastal Ranges with the height of up tp 2400m.
Boston is the 5th largest city in the United States. Only New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and Houston are larger. It is located on the Atlantic Ocean. Boston Harbor has always been an important port. The Charles River runs along the north side of the city and separates Boston from another well know city, Cambridge. Boston is the capital of Massachusetts, one of the 50 states and one of the original 13 states. Massachusetts, along with Connecticut, Rhode island, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine, makes up the region called New England.
It has this name because it was originally settled by people from England.
Washington, the Nation’s Capital.
In the first place, Los Angeles is know as centre of movie industry. Many film stars live in or near Los Angeles.
Los Angeles is a rich and glamorous place. The Beverly Hills area is famous for its beautiful mansions and high-priced shops.
Los Angeles is a rapidly-growing city. Its suburbs are not really suburbs: they have developed many businesses of their own. Los Angeles keeps spreading out into farmland and even desert.
Los Angeles’s growth is supported by its diverse economy. The city is not only a centre of entertainment and tourism.
It is also a big centre of manufacturing, finance, oil and trade. The port of Los Angeles handles more cargo than New York. The growth of trade is due to close contacts with Asian countries. Asian companies have invested a lot of money in Los Angeles; as a result, three-fourths of downtown Los Angeles is owned by foreign companies, mostly by Japanese.
With the growth of distances in Los Angeles, the importance of the car has greatly increased. Los Angeles’s highways are busiest in North America. There are days, when the “rush hour” lasts not an hour, but the whole day.
Los Angeles faces some other serious problems. The traffic is so heavy, that the city has the dirtiest air in the United States: very often people cannot see the sun though the sky is cloudless- the sun is completely hidden by smog.
The other problems of the city are crime and violence. Police say that there are at least 500 gangs in Los Angeles. Experts insist that these problems must be solved if Los Angeles wants to keep to the Southern Californian lifestyle for which it is famous.
New York attracts people from all over the world. If you look at the newspapers that people around you are reading, you will see that one person is reading a newspaper in Spanish, another in Arabic, still others in Chinese, French, Russian, Italian, and so on. New York was always a city of immigrants. It still is.
New York, one of the largest and most exciting cities in the world, is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean, and consists of five parts, called boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx and Staten Island.
But it is of course its central part, the borough of Manhattan, that most people think of when they think of New York.
Manhattan is an island 13 miles long and 2 miles wide. It is the centre of America finance, advertising, art, theatre, publishing, fashion- and everything else.
Manhattan is divided into the East Side and the West Side. The dividing line is Fifth AVenue.
All the streets that cross Fifth Avenue are also divided into two parts, that is they have, for example, West 5th Street and East 5th Street, West 11th Street and East 11th Street, and so on. The part of, say, 26th Street that goes west of Fifth Avenue is called West 26th Street, the part going east of Fifth Avenue-East 26th Street.
Manhattan is also divided into Lower (Downtown) Manhattan, Midtown, and Upper (Uptown) Manhattan. The numbers of the streets begin in Lower Manhattan and get higher as you go north.
The Wall Street Area. The first Europeans to settle in Manhattan were the Dutch. To protect themselves from possible attacks, they built a strong wooden wall. This wall, which is now destroyed, gave its name to a street in Lower Manhattan, and the street, in its turn, became a synonym of American capitalism. Of course, this street is Wall Street.
It is easy to see why Wall Street is a synonym of capitalism. Both the New York Stock Exchange the Wall Street area, as well as many banks and offices of many large corporations.
The twin towers of the World Trade Centre, which rise up to 1,350 feet above the city, are also here. There is an observation desk on the 107th floor of one of the towers, from which you get a good view of New York.
The Lower East Side. Originally, the Lower East Side was an elegant district. When New York was the capital of the United States, President George Washington lived in the Lower East Side.
By the mid-1800’s the Lower East Side had greatly changed. It had became an area in which immigrants settled. First there were many Irish, then came many Jews from Eastern Europe. In recent years mane Jews have moved to other places, and a new immigrant group has settled here- Puerto Ricans and other Hispanics.
Little Italy. Near the Lower East Side there is another area that attracted immigrants. It is Little Italy, which is famous for its food.
Until the 1840’s San Francisco was a settlement of 200 people. It grew and became important thanks to the Gold Rush. Forty-niners, who came to California by ship, passed San Francisco on their way. Many of them returned to San Francisco and stayed there. In a few years the population of city was 50 thousand.
In 1906 San Francisco was hit by a destructive earthquake. Eye-Witnesses described buildings dancing and falling to pieces, whole streets moving like ocean waves.
The earthquake was followed by fires that could not be stopped because the water supply of the city was destroyed. Only on the fifth day it started raining, and the rains put out the fires. Three-fourths of the city had burned down.
San Francisco is an unusual and very picturesque city. It is surrounded by water on three sides. It stands on forty hills. The city is also famous for its cable cars, which climb up and down the hills, and for its fine houses along steep and narrow streets.
San Francisco has a reputation of an intellectual, liberal and slightly crazy city- a city where you come across new and different ideas.
In the 1950’s San Francisco’s North Beach was a centre for “beat poets”. In the mid 1960’s one of the districts of San Francisco gave rise to hippies.
In the late 1960’s America was swept by college protest. These protest also began in the San Francisco area- at Berkeley, the University of California, which has always been now for academic excellence.
The symbol of San Francisco is the Golden Gate Bridge, which opened in 1937- a beautiful suspension bridge over the Golden Gate, a strait connecting San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Oceans.
Chicago is the centre of the Midwest and a typical American city
It is situated on Lake Michigan. Waterways( and later railroad lines) have made Chicago a natural link between the products of the Midwest and the markets of the East. For a long time now Chicago has been an important centre of meatpacking and grain storage. There are also many factories in Chicago which produce farm equipment. Chicago has played a great role in the growth of the Midwest and of the United States. The population of Chicago has also grown rapidly. In 1850 its population was 50 thousand people. Now it is one of the most populated cities in the United States.
In 1871 there was a great fire, which destroyed nearly the whole of Chicago. The city needed rebuilding. The skyscraper- a typical feature of America- appeared in the course of this rebuilding.
In 1880’s and 1890’s Chicago attracted engineers and architects from America and Europe. These men are now know as the Chicago school. In later years, the traditions which they began have been developed by others who worked in Chicago and other places.
Like New York, Chicago is a city of skyscrapers. Chicago’s tallest buildings are the John Hancock Tower ( or “Big John”, as they call it), the Standard Oil Building (“Big Stan”) and the Sears Tower, which is the tallest building in the world.
Although Chicago is situated far away from any ocean, it is famous for its beaches. Most of the area along Lake Michigan is taken up by beaches and parks.